Winter Quarter 2003
Time: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10-11:50 am
Place: Boelter Hall, Room 5419

Instructor: Deborah Estrin
3531H Boelter Hall

An important class of distributed networks are those that support monitoring and manipulation of physical spaces through wireless sensor networks. This course will study the distributed protocols needed to realize these systems. Topics include: a) design implications of energy, and otherwise resource-constrained nodes; b) network self-configuration and adaptation; c) localization and time synchronization; d) collaborative processing and distributed feature extraction, e) tasking and programming sensor networks.

Prerequisites: CS 118, CS 111, graduate standing or consent of instructor



Jan 7, 9: Motivating applications, Overview of technical challenges, Class organization
Jan 14: Network/Distributed system architecture [Brief Project writeup and team definitition due in class]
Jan 16, 21: Tools, Platforms: (Vlad Bychkovskiy, Thanos Stathopoulos, Mohan Mysore, Jeremy Elson, Guest speaker: William Merrill (Sensoria Corp))
Jan 23: MAC layer (Wei Ye) [Detailed Project writeup due in class]
Jan 28: Time Synch (Jeremy Elson)
Jan 30: Calibration (Vlad Bychkovskiy)
Feb 4: Localization I (Lew Girod)
Feb 6: Ultrasound based ranging and multilateration, (Andreas Savvides)
Feb 11: Midterm #1--In class, closed book
Feb 13: Topology Control and Routing ( Alberto Cerpa)
Feb 18: Directed diffusion (Estrin, Fabio Silva (ISI)).
Feb 20: Collaborative signal/information processing (Hanbiao Wang)
Feb 25: Multiresolution Storage, Feature detection (Deepak Ganesan, Tom Schoellhammer)
Feb 27: Indexing, Querying, Tasking and Programming Sensor Networks (Ben Greenstein, Thanos)
Mar 4: Distributed robotics/actuation (Mohammad Rahimi)
Mar 6: Security (Eric Osterweil)
Mar 11: Midterm #2--In class, closed book
Mar 13: Project Presentations
Mar 19: Final Projects due.



Class attendance and participation are mandatory (those given by the instructor as well as those given by other students). Lecture notes in the form of Powerpoint slides will be available for most lectures. The course web page is http://cens.ucla.edu/CS213.html

25% Homework: At the start of each class session (i.e., twice a week), each student must create and submit a quantitative homework/exam question and solution associated with one or more of the papers discussed in that session
30% Midterms: There will be one or two midterms covering material from readings and lectures
10% In class participation: please come prepared for interesting discussions and a thoughtful question to ask about each paper.
35% Final project: Each student will prepare a final project involving analysis, simulation, or implementation. Projects WILL be done in small groups (3-4 people). Project topics and groups must be finalized and described briefly in writing by Jan 14th, and a detailed plan and progress to date in writing turned in by Jan 28th.


This is a tentative reading list. Papers may be dropped and added. I will NOT expect everyone to read all 100 papers! For each class there will be some required and some optional reading.

I have borrowed liberally from several other course webpages, including:

    Introduction, Motivation, Constraints, Architecture

    1. Communications of the ACM: Embedding the Internet (Special Issue). http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/Courses/CS213-Win02/Readings/CACM
    2. IEEE Personal Communications: Smart Spaces and Environments (Special Issue) http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/Courses/CS213-Win02/Readings/PCM
    3. Embedded Everywhere: A research agenda for networked systems of embedded computers. Computer science and telecommunications board (CSTB) Report. http://www.cstb.org/web/pub_embedded
    4. Habitat monitoring: Application driver for wireless communications technology, Alberto Cerpa, Jeremy Elson, Deborah Estrin, Lewis Girod, Michael Hamilton and Jerry Zhao
      2001 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Data Communications in Latin America and the Caribbean, Costa Rica, April 2001. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/estrin/papers/CostaRica-oct01-final.ps
    5. A Taxonomy of wireless micro-sensor network models. Sameer Tilak, Nael B. Abu-Ghazaleh and Wendi Heinzelman. http://www.cs.binghamton.edu/~sameer/publications/main.pdf

      Tools and platforms
    6. System architecture directions for network sensors, Jason Hill, Robert Szewczyk, Alec Woo, Seth Hollar, David Culler, Kristofer Pister . ASPLOS 2000. (pdf) http://webs.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/media.html
    7. Active Message Communication for Tiny Network Sensors, Jason Hill, Philip Bounadonna, David Culler, (pdf). http://webs.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/media.html
    8. Energy and Performance Considerations for Smart Dust, L. Doherty, B. A. Warneke, B. Boser, K. S. J. Pister, International Journal of Parallel and Distributed Sensor Networks, Dec 2001.http://webs.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/media.html
    9. Not yet available: documentation on Ipaq testbed, simulator, etc
    10. Open Standard Development Platforms for Distributed Sensor Networks, W. Merrill et al.. Sensoria Corporation. http://www.sensoria.com/downloads/AeroSense2002_Sensoria.pdf
    11. Energy Efficient Computing for Wildlife Tracking: Design Tradeoffs and Early Experiences with Zebranet. P. Juong et al., http://www.ee.princeton.edu/~mrm/zebranet.html
    12. Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring, Alan Mainwaring, Intel Research Laboratory; Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk and David Culler, University of California, Berkeley

      MAC protocols
    13. V. Bharghavan and A. Demers and S. Shenker and L. Zhang, "MACAW: Media Access Protocol for Wireless LANs", Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Conference, 1994
    14. Multi-Access protocol with Signalling for Ad Hoc Networks", ACM Computer Communication Review, Vol 28, No 3, Jul, pp.5-26, 1998.
    15. Jaap C. Haartsen, "The Bluetooth radio system", IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, Feb, 2000, pp. 28-36.
    16. Frazer Bennett, David Clarke, Joseph B. Evans, Andy Hopper, Alan Jones, and David Leask, "Piconet: Embedded Mobile Networking", IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, Vol. 4, no. 5, pp.8-15 Oct., 1997 ftp://ftp.orl.co.uk/pub/docs/ORL/tr.97.9.ps.
    17. Katayoun Sohrabi and Gregory J. Pottie, "Performance of a novel self-organization protocol for wireless ad hoc sensor networks", Proceedings of the IEEE 50th Vehicular Technology Conference, 1999, pp.1222-1226
    18. Alec Woo and David Culler, "A Transmission Control Scheme for Media Access in Sensor Networks",Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Mobicom 2001, Rome, Italy. http://tinyos.millennium.berkeley.edu/papers/mobicom.pdf
    19. Wei Ye, John Heidemann and Deborah Estrin, "An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks", To appear in IEEE Infocom 2002.http://www.isi.edu/~weiye/pub/smac_infocom.pdf
    20. Transmission Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks with Directional Antennas Lichun Bao, J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. Mobicom 02
    21. A Power Control MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks, Eun-Sun Jung, Texas A&M University, USA, Nitin Vaidya, Mobicom 02
    22. Medium Access Control in Ad Hoc Networks Using Directional Antennas, Romit Roychoudhury, Xue Yang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, Ram Ramanathan, BBN, USA, Nitin Vaidya, Mobicom 02
    23. An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless LANs Eun-Sun Jung (Texas A&M University), Nitin Vaidya (University of Illinois) http://www.ieee-infocom.org/2002/papers/837.pdf

      Synchronization, Calibration and Localization
    24. Leslie Lamport, "Time, Clocks and the Ordering of Events in Distributed Systems", Communications of the ACM, 21(7):558-65, 1978. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/Courses/CS213-Win02/Readings/lamport-time.pdf
    25. David L. Mills, "Internet Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol". http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2219.ps
    26. Fine-Grained Network Time Synchronization using Reference Broadcasts (also available as PDF) Jeremy Elson, Lewis Girod and
      Deborah Estrin. In Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI 2002), Boston, MA. December 2002. . http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/Publications/papers/broadcast.ps
    27. Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Regime for Time Synchronization (also available as PDF) Jeremy Elson and Kay Romer To appear in
      Proceedings of the First Workshop on Hot Topics In Networks (HotNets-I), Princeton, New Jersey. October 28-29 2002.
    28. Kay Romer (ETH-Zurich), "Time Synchronization in Ad Hoc Networks". Mobihoc 2001 http://www.inf.ethz.ch/vs/publ/papers/mobihoc01-time-sync.pdf. http://www.gpsclock.com/gps.html. Web page giving an overview of using GPS for time synchronization.
    29. Saurabh Ganeriwal, Ram Kumar, Sachin Adlakha and Mani Srivastava, "Network-wide Time Synchronization in Sensor Networks," , April 2002
    30. K. Marzullo. Tolerating Failures of Continuous-Valued Sensors , ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 8(4), November 1990, p. 284--304.
    31. Calibration as Parameter Estimation in Sensor Networks, Kamin Whitehouse and David Culler, University of California, Berkeley
    32. Colibration: A Collaborative Approach to In-Place Sensor Calibration, Vladimir Bychkovskiy, Seapahn Megerian, Deborah Estrin, and Miodrag Potkonjak
      Submitted for review to the 2nd International Workshop on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN'03), December 2002. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/estrin#paper
    33. Jeffrey Hightower and Gaatano Boriello, IEEE Computer Magazine, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 57-66 . August 2001. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/Courses/CS213-Win02/Readings/hightower-survey.pdf
    34. Special Issue on Global Positioning System, P.Enge and P. Misra (guest editors), Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol 87. No.1. January 1999.
    35. Roy Want, Andy Hopper, Veronica Falcao and Jonathan Gibbons, "The Active Badge Location System," ACM Transactions on Information Systems, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 91-102, January 1992.
    36. A New Location Technique for the Active Office, Andy Ward, Alan Jones, Andy Hopper, IEEE Personal Communications, Vol. 4, No.5, October 1997, pp. 42-47.http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/Courses/CS213-Win02/Readings/active-bat.pdf
    37. RADAR: An In-Building RF-based User Location and Tracking System", Paramvir Bahl and Venkata N. Padmanabhan, In Proceedings of IEEE Infocom 2000, Tel-Aviv, Israel, April 2000. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/Courses/CS213-Win02/Readings/radar.pdf
    38. Nissanka Priyantha, Anit Chakraborty and Hari Balakrishnan, "The Cricket Location Support System," in International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), Boston, MA, August 2000
    39. Robust range estimation using acoustic and multimodal sensing", Lewis Girod and Deborah Estrin, In Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2001), Maui, Hawaii, October 2001. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/estrin/papers/IROS-2001.ps
    40. Convex Position Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks", Lance Doherty, Kristofer S.J. Pister and Laurent El-Ghaoui, In Proceedings of IEEE Infocom 2001, Anchorage, Alaska, April 2001. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/Courses/CS213-Win02/Readings/doherty-infocom.pdf
    41. D. Fox, W. Burgard, H. Kruppa, and S. Thrun, "A Probabilistic Approach to Collaborative Multi-Robot Localization", Autonomous Robots, 8(3), 2000. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/fox/postscripts/multi-mcl-journal-00.ps.gz
    42. The Bits and Flops of the n-hop Multilateration Primitive for Node Localization Problems, Andreas Savvides, Heemin Park and Mani Srivastava, University of California, Los Angeles
    43. Self-configuring Localization Systems: Design and Experimental Evaluation. Nirupama Bulusu, John Heidemann, Deborah Estrin and Tommy Tran. Submitted for review to ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (ACM TECS), August 2002. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/estrin/#paper

      Topology Control and Data Routing
    44. Span: an Energy-Efficient Coordination Algorithm for Topology Maintenance in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. Benjie Chen, Kyle Jamieson, Hari Balakrishnan, and Robert Morris.To appear in ACM Wireless Networks Journal, Volume 8, Number 5, September, 2002.http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/span/
    45. Topology Control Protocols to Conserve Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Y. Xu, S. Bien, Y. Mori, J. Heidemann, D. Estrin, In Submission. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/~sbien/papers/gaf-cec-journal.pdf.
    46. Adaptive Self-Configuring Sensor Networks Topologies, Alberto Cerpa and Deborah Estrin. In Proceedings of the Twenty First International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2002), New York, NY, USA, June 23-27 2002. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/~cerpa/ASCENT-final-infocom-pdf13.pdf
    47. Energy-aware wireless microsensor networks," Vijay Raghunathan, Curt Schurgers, Sung Park, Mani B. Srivastava. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Volume: 19 Issue: 2, Mar 2002; Page(s): 40 -50. cs219/Papers/raghunathan02.pdf, Corresponding author Mani Srivastava (mbs@ee.ucla.edu)
    48. Seapahn Meguerdichian, Farinaz Koushanfar, Gang Qu, Miodrag Potkonjak, "Exposure In Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks." MobiCom 2001, pp. 139-150, July 2001. http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~seapahn/papers/mobicom01_124.pdf
    49. Topology: Investigating Upper Bounds on Network Lifetime Extension for Cell-Based Energy Conservation Techniques in Stationary Ad Hoc Networks, Douglas Blough, Georgi Institute of Technology, USA, Paolo Santi, Mobicom 02
    50. Topology: Wake on Wireless: An Event Driven Power Saving Strategy for Battery Operated Devices, Eugene Shih, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA,
    51. Bhaskar Krishnamachari, Stephen Wicker, Ramon Bejar, and Marc Pearlman, "Critical Density Thresholds in Distributed Wireless Networks," to appear in a book on Advances in Coding and Information Theory, eds. H. Bhargava, H.V. Poor and V. Tarokh, Kluwer Publishers.
    52. A Coverage-Preserving Node Scheduling Scheme for Large Wireless Sensor Networks, Di Tian and Nicolas D. Georganas, University of Ottawa.
    53. Sensor deployment strategy for target detection, Thomas Clouqueur, Veradej Phipatanasuphorn, Parmesh Ramanathan and Kewal Saluja, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    54. Infrastructure Tradeoffs for Sensor Networks, Sameer Tilak and Nael Abu-Ghazaleh, Binghamton University; Wendi Heinzelman, University of Rochester
    55. Lifetime Analysis of a Sensor Network with Hybrid Automata Modelling, Sinem Coleri, Mustafa Ergen and T. John Koo, University of California, Berkeley.
    56. Routing Young-Bae Ko and Nitin H. Vaidya, Location-Aided Routing(LAR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks , In Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 1998), ACM, Dallas, TX, October 1998.
    57. Brad Karp and H. T. Kung, "GPSR: greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks," in International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), pp. 243-254, 2000.
    58. Geographical and Energy Aware Routing: A Recursive Data Dissemination Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Yan Yu, Ramesh Govindan and Deborah Estrin. UCLA Computer Science Department Technical Report UCLA/CSD-TR-01-0023, May 2001. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/estrin/#paper
    59. Constrained Random Walks on Random Graphs: Routing Algorithms for Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks, Sergio Servetto, Cornell University. Guillermo Barrenechea, EPFL; Zurich, Switzerland.
    60. Deepak Ganesan, Ramesh Govindan, Scott Shenker and Deborah Estrin, "Highly- Resilient, Energy-Efficient Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," Mobile Computing and Communications Review (MC2R), vol. 1, no. 2, 2002.
    61. * ARRIVE: An Architecture for Robust Routing In Volatile Environments, Chris Karlof, Yaping Li, and Joseph Polastre, UC Berkeley Tech Report. May 2002. (pdf). http://webs.cs.berkeley.edu/tos/media.html
    62. Topology: On the Interdependence of Routing and Data Compression in Multi-Hop Sensor Networks, Anna Scaglione, Sergio Servetto. Mobicom 02
    63. Modeling Data-Centric Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Bhaskar Krishanamachari, Deborah Estrin and Stephen Wicker. ICDCS Workshop DEBS'02. July 2001. Vienna, Austria
    64. Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks", Chalermek Intanagonwiwat, Ramesh Govindan and Deborah Estrin In Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networks (MobiCOM 2000), August 2000, Boston, Massachusetts. http://netweb.usc.edu/estrin/papers/diffusion.ps
    65. Building Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks with Low-Level Naming", John Heidemann, Fabio Silva, Chalermek Intanagonwiwat, Ramesh Govindan, Deborah Estrin, and Deepak Ganesan. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, p. to appear. Lake Louise, Banff, Canada, ACM. October, 2001.http://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Heidemann01c.pdf
    66. Smart-Tag Based Data Dissemination. Allan Beaufour, Martin Leopold and Philippe Bonnet, University of Copenhagen.
    67. A Two-tier Data Dissemination Model for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks, Fan Ye, Haiyun Luo, Jerry Cheng, Lixia Zhang, Songwu Lu, Mobicom 02

      In network processing
    68. Joe C. Chen, Kung Yao, and Ralph E. Hudson, Source localization and beamforming, to be appeared in IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Mar. 2002. http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jcchen/pub/chen_ieee.pdf
    69. Joe C. Chen, Ralph E. Hudson, and Kung Yao, Maximum-likelihood source localization and unknown sensor location estimation for wideband signals in the near-field, revision of manuscript submitted in Dec. 2001 to IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing. http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jcchen/pub/chen_sig02.pdf
    70. Joe C. Chen, Kung Yao, and Ralph E. Hudson, Acoustic source localization and beamforming: theory and practice, EURASIP Advanced Signal Processing journal. http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jcchen/pub/chen_asp02.pdf
    71. Detection, Classification and Tracking of Targets in Distributed Sensor Networks", Dan Li, Kerry Wong, Yu Hen Hu, Akbar Sayeed cs219/Papers/Sayeed-SP-data.doc Corresponding author Akbar Sayeed (akbar@dune.ece.wisc.edu)
    72. Source Localization and Beamforming in a Distributed Sensor Network: Coherent Signal Processing for Wideband Acoustic and Seismic Signals", Joe C. Chen, Kung Yao, Ralph Hudson http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jcchen/pub/chenSPmag02.pdf. Corresponding author Kung Yao (yao@ee.ucla.edu)
    73. Distributed Compression in a Dense Sensor Network", S. Sandeep Pradhan, Julius Kusuma, Kannan Ramchandran http://www.mit.edu/people/kusuma/Papers/spmag_final.pdf. Corresponding author Kannan Ramchadran (kannanr@EECS.Berkeley.EDU)
    74. Feng Zhao, Jaewon Shin, James Reich. "Information-Driven Dynamic Sensor Collaboration for Target Tracking", IEEE Signal
      Processing Magazine, Volume: 19 Issue: 2, Mar 2002.
    75. Physics-based Encapsulation in Embedded Software for Distributed Sensing and Control Applications, Proceedings of the IEEE
    76. M. Chu, H. Haussecker, F. Zhao, ``Scalable Information-Driven Sensor Querying and Routing for ad hoc Heterogeneous Sensor Networks.'' Int'l J. of High Performance Computing Applications, 2002.
    77. Leonidas Guibas. "Sensing, Tracking and Reasoning with Relations", IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Volume: 19 Issue: 2, Mar 2002. http://www.parc.xerox.com/spl/projects/cosense/pub/ieee_spm_guibas.pdf
    78. Dan Li, Kerry Wong, Yu Hen Hu, Akbar Sayeed. "Detection, Classification and Tracking of Targets in Distributed Sensor
      Networks", IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Volume: 19 Issue: 2, Mar 2002.
    79. Preprocessing in a Tiered Sensor Network for Habitat Monitoring. Hanbiao Wang, Deborah Estrin, Lewis Girod
      EURASIP JASP special issue of sensor networks, September 2002. http://lecs.cs.ucla.edu/estrin#paper
    80. Multiresolution storage and feature extraction Deepak Ganesan and Deborah Estrin, "Dimensions: Why do we need a new Data Handling architecture for Sensor Networks?," in First Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (Hotnets-I), vol. 1, October 2002.
    81. Localized Edge Detection in Sensor Fields by Krishna Kant Chintalapudi, Ramesh Govindan
    82. * Schoellhammer, edge detection

      Querying and Programming abstractions
    83. Database querying (to be updated) Querying the Physical World, Philippe Bonnet, J. E. Gehrke, and Praveen Seshadri, IEEE Personal Communications, Vol. 7, No. 5, October 2000, pages 10-15. Special Issue on Smart Spaces and Environments
    84. GADT: A Probability Space ADT for Representing and Querying the Physical World, Anton Faradjian, J. E. Gehrke, and Philippe Bonnet, In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE 2002), San Jose, California, February 2002. cs219/Papers/Anton_Faradjian. GADT-AProbabilitySpaceADTForRepresentingAndQueryingThePhysicalWorld.pdf
    85. Joseph M. Hellerstein and Ron Avnur. Eddies: Continuously Adaptive Query Processing. In SIGMOD 2000. http://db.cs.berkeley.edu/papers/sigmod00-eddy.pdf
    86. Samuel R. Madden, Michael J. Franklin, Joseph M. Hellerstein, and Wei Hong. TAG: a Tiny AGgregation Service for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks. OSDI, December 2002. [pdf]
    87. Shenker, S., Ratnasamy, S., Karp, B., Govindan, R., and Estrin, D., Data-Centric Storage in Sensornets. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets 2002), Princeton, NJ, October, 2002.
    88. Ratnasamy, S., Karp, B., Yin, L., Yu, F., Estrin, D., Govindan, R., and Shenker, S., GHT: A Geographic Hash Table for Data-Centric Storage. First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA 2002), Atlanta, GA, September, 2002. [pdf]
    89. Greenstein, B., Estrin, D., Govindan, R., Ratnasamy, S., SHenker, S., DIFS: A Distributed Index for Features in Sensor Networks. To appear in Workshop on Sensor Network Protocols and Application (SNPA), 2003.
    90. * TBD more on programming abstractions, survey from parallel computing, distributed agent programming .
    91. P. Levis and D. Culler, Maté: a Virtual Machine for Tiny Networked Sensors , ASPLOS, Dec 2002.
    92. Chenyang Lu, Brian M. Blum, Tarek F. Abdelzaher, John A. Stankovic, and Tian He, RAP: A Real-Time Communication Architecture for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks , IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2002), San Jose, CA, September 2002.
    93. TinyGALS: A Programming Model for Event-Driven Embedded Systems, ACM Symposium on Applied Computing

      Coordinated actuation

    94. V. Lumelsky, K. Harinarayan, ``Decentralized Motion Planning for Multiple Mobile Robots: The Cocktail Party Model". Autonomous Robots Journal No.4, 1997, 121-135. http://robios8.me.wisc.edu/~lumelsky/papers/autom-robot-jour95-hari.ps
    95. P. Stone and M. Veloso, "Task Decomposition, Dynamic Role Assignment, and Low-Bandwidth Communication for Real-Time Strategic Teamwork," Artificial Intelligence, 1999. http://www.ri.cmu.edu/pubs/pub_3173.html
    96. Beckers, R., O. E. Holland and J. L. Deneubourg (1994), "From Local Actions to Global Tasks: Stigmergy and Collective Robotics", Artificial Life IV, Proc. of the Fourth International Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, R. A. Brooks and P. Maes (eds), pp. 181-189. http://fnord.usc.edu/~fod/papers/cs584/alife4.ps
    97. Barry Brian Werger, "Cooperation Without Deliberation: A Minimal Behavior-based Approach to Multi-robot Teams", Artificial Intelligence 110(1999) 293-320 http://robotics.usc.edu/~barry/papers/aij.ps.gz
    98. Daniel Rus and Gaurav Sukhatme papers


    99. SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks Adrian Perrig, Robert Szewczyk, Victor Wen, David Culler, J. D. Tygar Mobicom 2001. www.ece.cmu.edu/~adrian/projects/mc2001/mc2001.pdf
    100. Y.W. Law, S. Dulman, S. Etalle and P. Havinga. Assessing Security-Critical Energy-Efficient Sensor Networks, Department of Computer Science, University of Twente, Technical Report TR-CTIT-02-18, Jul 2002. http://wwwes.cs.utwente.nl/24cqet/adhoc.html
    101. "Secure Routing in Sensor Networks: Attacks and Countermeasures", Chris Karlof and David Wagner, http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ckarlof/research/sensor-nets/
    102. Denial of Service in Sensor Networks, Anthony D. Wood, John A. Stankovic, http://www.computer.org/computer/co2002/rx054abs.htm?SMSESSION=NO


      Two available platforms: (A) IPAQ/linux nodes w/acoustic I/O and 802.11 commun ications, and (B) UCB Mote/TOS based octopus for low power comm and sensor I/O and linux/simulation based programming environment

      Example Projects: